*Project Dropped*Sustainable Conversion of Waste into Clean Energy to Reduce GHG emissions

Project General Information


Kenya Waste to Energy


Climate change

Climate Change


Kenya is highly dependent on large hydroelectricity, which is responsible for over 75% of all electrical output. Energy consumption is dominated by fuel-wood and other non-sustainable resources. In Kenya electricity access at 15.3% of the total population and 3.8% of the rural population. Sectoral energy consumption in Kenya is such that industries (9%), transport (12%), agriculture (6%), commercial and public services (1%), and residential (71%).

Bio-waste accounts for 60% of the solid waste in cities and towns. In some industries like slaughterhouses and horticultural farms, bio-waste accounts for upto 90% of their waste. At the same time industries the project aims to target also have a high energy bill accounting for 20-40% of their total cost of production.

Productivity levels for many crops are below potential and for some agricultural produce yield and value over a 5-year period have either remained constant or are on the decline.  The cost of key inputs such as seed, pesticides, fertilizer, drugs and vaccines is high for resource-poor farmers. Such high costs lead to low application and adulteration of inputs. The reduction of fallow periods and continuous cultivation has led to rapid depletion of soil nutrients, declining yields and environmental degradation.


In the municipal solid waste sector, Nairobi City Council (NCC) is responsible for managing the collection, transport and disposal of over 1,500 tonnes of municipal solid waste per day in the Nairobi Metropolitan Area, suitable for anearobic digestion or incineration.  More than 50% of the waste is organic; 38% is made up of plastic, paper, glass & metal; 20% of which is recycled, mainly by waste pickers and small operators.  Nairobi is zoned into concession areas for private contractors to collect waste, in return for which they charge a fee to the consumer. In public areas the City Council pays for the service of waste collection. Waste collection contractors then pay a small tipping fee for disposal of waste at the muncipal dump site. Currently only 50% of waste is actually collected in Nairobi, leaving great potential for imporvement. Waste remains uncollected mainly in poor areas and slums. All the waste goes to a single dump site (Dandora). This is an unprepared site that is now full and causing envinronmental and social impacts. Again there is great potential for improvement in solid waste management practices.

JICA and UNEP have been involved since 1998 in the consultation and drafting of NCC's Municipal Solid Waste Management Plan, which was last updated in 2010. This together with the need to close Dandora, has created a momentum that can help bring changes in waste management practices in Nairobi. JICA is supporting the NCC to implement parts of the SWMP, while UNEP monitors the impacts and sponors a dialogue for change in SWM practices. In concrete terms JICA is supporting NCC to do an Environmenta Impact Assessment and advertise for expressions of interest to decomission Dandora. JICA is also supporting a feasibility study to develop a new site fro tipping. Once complete the NCC plans to advertise a second expression of interest for the development and management of this new tipping site.


The SWMP calls for the seperatation and recycling of waste, and a dramtic increase in the total propotion of collected solid waste. The NCC has not yet started detailed thinking on how it plans to approach this next stage yet. This project will help them with that. 


Biogas produced from industrial processes will be made available for households/domestic purposes to substitute the use of biomass and kerosene. Digested residue will be processed into organic fertilizer for sale to local farmers. From the municipal waste the biogas plant will be owned by KENGEN and power will be fed into the National Power grid.


Full Size Project(FSP)




GEF Trust Fund

Stage Grant to UNEP Grant to other IA Co-Financing UNEP Fee Other IA Fee
$ 1,300,000.00 $ 902,000.00 $ 13,800,000.00 $ 130,000.00 $ 90,200.00


UN Industrial Development Organization(UNIDO)

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)



Executing Agency Category
Kenya: Ministries of Environment
National Government Agency
Kenya: Ministry of Agriculture
National Government Agency
Kenya: Ministry of Energy
National Government Agency
Kenya: Nairobi City Council
National Government Agency
Kenya: Ministry of Trade and Industry
National Government Agency

Partner Category

Name Category Period
Geordie Colville

Moderate Risk


Fiscal Year Project activities and objectives met

 Kenya is in a transition face politically with elections in 2012 and implementation of a new constitution ongoing.

It will not be possible to negotiate a deal for collection, transport, separation and disposal of waste in Nairobi.

Kenya lacks institutional and human capacity necessary for development, execution as well as operation and maintenance of Waste to energy Biogas technologies. This is an impediment to large scale penetration of these technologies.

The revised scope of the KENGEN feasibility study is still not viable

Private sector lacks sufficient funds for investment in waste to energy systems. Similarly, financing institutions also lacks awareness on the potential of these technologies.

Inadequate Policy, regulatory and institutional framework to support wide adoption of waste to energy technology development

There is a risk in sustaining the projects based on waste to energy technologies on the input and supply side as well as project operation and maintenance of isolated systems


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