Development of Minamata Initial Assessment and Updating of National Action Plan for Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining in Indonesia

Project General Information



Harmful substances and hazardous waste

Persistent Organic Pollutants


A.                      Enabling Activity Background and Context


The Mercury Convention was adopted in January 2013 and will come into force once the required number of countries ratifies the Convention. The Minamata Convention on Mercury identifies and describes in its Article 13 the financial mechanism to support Parties from developing countries and countries with economies in transition to implement the Convention.  It identifies two entities that will function as the Financial Mechanism: a) the Global Environment Facility Trust Fund; and b) A specific international Programme to support capacity-building and technical assistance. As such, the GEF Assembly, at its fifth meeting, held in May 2014, agreed to an allocation in its sixth replenishment of $141 million for work under the Convention, out of which $30 million to support enabling activities and promote their integration into national budgets and planning processes, national and sector policies and actions and global monitoring.


The revised GEF initial guidelines for enabling activities for the Minamata Convention on Mercury circulated to the GEF Council members in January 2014 presented in its section 1 the initial guidelines for the development of “Minamata Initial Assessment activities” (MIA) and in its section 2 the guidelines for the preparations of Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining (ASGM) National Action Plans (NAPs) required under article 7. These guidelines were revised by the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee 6 (INC 6) consistent with the resolution adopted by the Conference of Plenipotentiaries on the Minamata Convention on Mercury. The draft guidance was introduced to the INC 7 as an annex of the document UNEP(DTIE)/Hg/INC.7/17. It was agreed that the guidance in its current form would be used to assist countries in the preparation of their action plans in the period between the current session and the first meeting of the Conference of Parties. This project follows the guidelines introduced in the INC 7 and will seek for comments from Governments to improve the guidance with a view to presenting a revised version of it for consideration and possible adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its first meeting.


The project also contributes to the achievement of the expected accomplishment A under the UNEP biennial Programme of Work (PoW) 2016-2017 “countries increasingly have the necessary institutional capacity and policy instruments to manage chemicals and waste soundly, including the implementation of related provisions in the multilateral environmental agreements”. The MIA and NAP development contributes in particular to the PoW output 2 “secretariat support provided to the intergovernmental negotiating committee to prepare a global legally binding instrument on mercury (the Minamata Convention on Mercury) during the interim period, prior to its entry into force”. Through this project UNEP will provide national stakeholders with the policy and technical instruments needed to ratify the Minamata Convention and will strengthen the national institutional capacity to its early implementation. It will also apply and comment the NAP guidance as required by the INC 7. The outcomes of this project are also aligned with the objectives of the proposed PoW and budget for the biennium 2018-2019 approved by UNEA in 2016, expected accomplishment A, policies and legal, institutional and fiscal strategies and mechanisms for sound chemicals management developed or implemented in countries within the framework of relevant multilateral environmental agreements and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM).  The project will contribute to the indicator of achievement by increasing the number of countries that have used UNEP guidance in developing an Action Plan that promotes sound mercury management and implement the Minamata Convention.


Mercury pollution is a serious concern in East and Southeast Asia, accounting for about 50% of the global total anthropogenic mercury emissions to the atmosphere[1].  Indonesia has indicated that availability of data is a major challenge to design adequated strategies for mercury reduction. Indonesia will benefit from new and updated information about the mercury situation in the country and from increased capacity in managing the risks of mercury, in particular from the ASGM sector. Indonesia will also be in compliance with the article 7 of the Minamata Convention. The sharing of experiences and lessons learned throughout the project is also expected to be an important contribution to other similar countries within region.


SDGs in Indonesia


The NAP development and future implementation contribute to achieve the following Sustainable Development Goals in Indonesia:

ü  Sustainable Development Goal (2) ensures healthy lives and promotes well-being for all at all ages. The NAP has strategies to prevent the exposure of vulnerable populations to mercury emissions and releases from the ASGM sector and consequently contributes to reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals (target 3.9). Indirectly, the positive impacts over population’s health also contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal (1) - end poverty in all its forms everywhere. Many ASGM miners are trapped in a vicious cycle of poverty due, among others to the burden with the costs associated with the deterioration of the miner’s health (target 1.2);

ü  Sustainable Development Goal (8) promotes inclusive and sustainable economic growth, employment and decent work for all. The NAP will identify the steps needed to facilitate the formalization of the ASGM sector and will develop strategies to promote the reduction of emissions releases, and exposure to mercury in the ASGM sector. These measures will improve the working conditions of miners, in particular through the elimination of worst practices of mercury use in ASGM and a broader access to mercury-free methods (target 8.3, 8.4);

ü  The project will also indirectly contribute to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (5) achieve gender equality and empower women and girls. This will be done through the collection of disaggregated data by sex, the participation of stakeholders from both sexes in the consultations and the inclusion of gender sensitive indicators in the project logical framework. As part of the NAP, strategies to prevent exposure of vulnerable populations, particularly children and women of child-bearing age, especially pregnant women, to mercury use in ASGM will be developed. This strategy will contribute to the development of national sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels (target 5c);

ü  Sustainable Development Goal (6) – ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. The NAP will contribute in particular to achieve the target 6.3 improving water quality by reducing the release of hazardous chemicals in the ASGM areas;

ü  Sustainable Development Goal (12) – ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns. The project will directly contribute to achieve the target 12.4 under this goal that is to achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment. The NAP contributes to the environmentally sound management of mercury through the early implementation of the Minamata Convention.


National background information:


Indonesia signed the Minamata Convention on 10 October 2013 during the Diplomatic Conference (Conference of Plenipotentiaries), held in Kumamoto, Japan. On 05 August 2016 Indonesia notified the Minamata Secretariat that artisanal and small-scale gold mining and processing is more than insignificant in the country.


Indonesia was among the six countries[2] that participated in the Global Mercury Project (GMP), implemented from 2002 to 2007 by UNIDO. The overall goal of the project was to demonstrate ways of overcoming barriers to the adoption of best practices and pollution prevention measures that limit the mercury contamination of international waters from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM). The project in Indonesia managed three sites: Galangan, Katingan District, Central Kalimantan; Tanoyan, Bolaang Mongondow District, North Sulawesi;  and Sekonyer Area, Kotawaringin Barat District, Central Kalimantan.  Each site had different cultures, infrastructure, processing methods, understanding and knowledge of health awareness, government capacity, affluence and other unique set of issues.


[2] Brazil, Lao PDR, Indonesia, Sudan, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

Expedited Enabling Activity(EA)


Asia and the Pacific


GEF Trust Fund

Stage Grant to UNEP Grant to other IA Co-Financing UNEP Fee Other IA Fee


Executing Agency Category

Partner Category

Name Category Period

Low Risk

Kevin Helps

Not Applicable


Fiscal Year Project activities and objectives met

Project Outcome: Minamata Initial Assessment and National Action Plan for the ASGM sector developed and endorsed by the national government and key stakeholders facilitating the ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention in Indonesia.

The goal of the MIA and NAP development is to contribute to the implementation of the Minamata Convention through the reduction of the risks posed by the unsound use, management and releases of mercury, in particular in the ASGM sectors.  This goal contributes to the GEF focal area strategy 1 of the chemicals waste area which is “Develop the enabling conditions, tools and environment to manage harmful chemicals and wastes ».


Project objective: Ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention contributes to the protection of human health and the environment from the risks posed by unintentional and intentional emissions and releases, unsound use and management of mercury in Indonesia.


Project Components and Activities: The national MIA and NAP development has three components, which consists of the activities indicated below. Each component includes information on project outputs and activities.


Component 1: Global technical support for MIA and NAP development


This project component will strengthen information exchange between stakeholders regionally/globally. As part of this, Indonesia will receive additional training and support to develop its MIA and NAP. Indonesia will have access to technical expertise and tools to facilitate the development of the MIA and NAP and information exchange, developed within the framework of the UNEP Global Mercury Partnership. The technical expertise and tools provided will respond directly to country needs identified. With this additional support Indonesia will be able to obtain feedback and rapid response to its queries on the development of the MIA and NAP and will also make full use of the existing capacities and expertise in the region and globally. Lessons learned identified through this project, in particular during the final lessons learned workshop will also be made available. It will identify opportunities for regional/global cooperation and synergies between countries working on their MIAs and NAPs.


Expected Outputs and planned activities:


1.1  Training and guidance provided to relevant national stakeholders in Indonesia to develop a MIA and develop and implement a NAP as per Annex C of the Minamata Convention.


1.1.1        Development of a roster of experts and collection of tools and methodologies for MIA and NAP development;


1.1.2        Capacity building trainings and assistance with baseline inventories;


1.1.3        Knowledge management and information exchange through the Global Mercury Partnership website and/or Partners websites and tools;


1.1.4        Final national workshop to identify lessons learned and opportunities for future cooperation in the NAP implementation. A gender session will be included in the workshop agenda.


Component 2: Minamata Initial Assessment (MIA) and National Action Plan (NAP) development, validation and endorsement


The National Coordination Mechanism (NCM) will be identified under this component. The NCM will coordinate and guide the implementation of the project while strengthening the synergies between institutions on management of chemicals, including mercury. Sectors that will participate in this process as part of the National Coordination Mechanism include representatives from health, environment, labor, finance, economy, industry, mining and energy sectors.


In addition, the NCM will identify a stakeholder advisory group (SAG), composed of stakeholders who possess relevant knowledge and information, and whose collaboration and cooperation will be needed for the successful formulation of the MIA and NAP. The SAG will include relevant members of civil society with experience and knowledge in the national mercury uses and releases. A gender specialist will be identified in the country to participate actively in the NCM for mercury. The NCM will engage with the SAG at regular intervals and during all phases of the MIA and NAP development and direct feedback on these documents will be provided through a mechanism to be agreed upon by the NCM. A list of suggested members of the NCM and of the SAG can be found at page 9-10 to the guidance document[1] for NAP development. It will be complemented by relevant stakeholders of other sectors during the inception workshop. It is expected that these broader consultations will enhance stakeholder’s commitment to the development of the MIA and the NAP and gain political support for the ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention on Mercury.


After the establishment of the NCM and SAG the project will proceed with the assessment of national capacities on mercury management (technical, administrative, infrastructure and regulatory) taking into account the obligations under the Minamata Convention. This review and assessment will result in a preliminary identification of national needs and gaps for the ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention. The assessments produced under this component will provide Ministries with strong arguments for the ratification of the Minamata Convention and prioritization of mercury management on the national agenda. Once the Convention is ratified, this component outputs will be essential to comply with the reporting obligations of the Convention and to monitor its implementation. Gender issues and the interests of vulnerable populations will be fully taken into account in the assessments.


Considering the specific challenges of the ASGM sector, the national assessment will be complemented by a national overview of the ASGM sector including information on the following topics:


·                    Baseline estimates of mercury emissions and releases from the ASGM sector;

·                    Structure of the ASGM sector (i.e., single family miners, community mines, etc.);

·                    Policies surrounding ASGM at regional/local levels;

·                    Geographic distribution of ASGM;

·                    Economics, such mercury supply, use and demand. The project will search in particular for information about gender and children aspects of the ASGM economics;

·                    Size of the formal and informal ASGM economy;

·                    Information on mining practices, including information on ore bodies exploited, processes used, the amount of mercury used, the number of people directly involved in ASGM and indirectly exposed to mercury (disaggregated by sex and age);

·                    Information on gold processing practices/burn off of mercury in gold processing shops or community retorts;

·                    Known information on overall environmental impacts, contaminated sites, mercury releases in soil, air and water;

·                    Studies and other information on mercury exposure, through various media, and studies on impacts in ASGM communities and downstream communities. The project will search for known information desegregated by sex and age;

·                    Information about access to technical assistance for miners;

·                    Leadership and organization of ASGM at national and local levels;

·                    Experiences in addressing ASGM;

·                    Information gaps at the local and national scale that can be addressed.


$ 0.00

Project Outcome: Minamata Initial Assessment and National Action Plan for the ASGM sector developed and endorsed by the national government and key stakeholders facilitating the ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention in Indonesia.

Project Objective: Ratification and early implementation of the Minamata Convention contributes to the protection of human health and the environment from the risks posed by unintentional and intentional emissions and releases, unsound use and management of mercury in Indonesia.

Project Components

Project Outputs

(in $)

GEF Project


Confirmed Co-financing[1]

1.     Global technical support for NAP development

1.1  Training and guidance provided to relevant national stakeholders in Indonesia to develop a MIA and develop and implement a NAP as per Annex C of the Minamata Convention




2.    Minamata Initial Assessment (MIA) and National Action Plan (NAP) development

2.1  Identified and strengthened national coordination mechanisms and stakeholder advisory groups that will guide the project implementation


2.2  National institutional and regulatory framework and national capacities on mercury management assessed


2.3  National inventories of mercury sources and releases and strategy for the identification of mercury contaminated sites developed


2.4  Challenges, needs and opportunities to implement the Minamata Convention assessed and recommendations to ratify and implement the Minamata Convention developed


2.5  Draft NAP developed as per Annex C of the Minamata Convention



3.     MIA validation and NAP endorsement and submission to the Minamata Secretariat

3.1  Technical support provided to participating country to facilitate the MIA validation and NAP endorsement and submission to the Minamata Secretariat.







Project Management Cost[2]



Monitoring and Evaluation



Total Project Cost




[1] Co-financing for enabling activity is encouraged but not required.

[2] This is the cost associated with the unit executing the project on the ground and could be financed out of trust fund or co-financing sources. For EAs within the ceiling, PMC could be up to 10% of the Subtotal GEF Project Financing.