Review and update of the national implementation plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Ukraine

Project General Information



01551

NIP UKRAINE


Harmful substances and hazardous waste

Persistent Organic Pollutants

VI





Under the former Soviet Union, from the late fifties to the 1990s, DDT was among the pesticides most widely used in agriculture and medicine in all oblasts of Ukraine. Ukraine was also the manufacturer and exporter of DDT to the former soviet republics in Central Asia and abroad. The production stopped in Ukraine in 1986. DDT application in medicine was prohibited in 1989 by the Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

 

On 5 August 1997 "the list of pesticides prohibited for use in agriculture, which cannot be registered or re-registered in Ukraine" was approved. The list includes Aldrin, HCH (mixed isomers), Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor and its mixtures with Three-dimensional model of the Thiram molecule and HCB, DDT and agents based on it, DDD, DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, Toxaphene, Chlordane. The list has to be updated to include some of the new POPs pesticides listed in the Convention ever since. The prohibition to use these pesticides has led to the accumulation of residues in warehouses on the territory of Ukraine. At this time they are in the warehouses of varying degrees of destruction and their identification is difficult. They are poured randomly in a heap, over time they begin to react. The effects of such chemical reactions are generally difficult to predict. Sometimes self-ignition happens. Toxic substances poison the air, soil and water, and the indiscriminate dumping of pesticides is a ticking time bomb. According to the results of the first inventory, conducted by the local organs of the Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2005-2006, the volume of wastes was approximately 21,38 thousand tones. From this amount of wastes, nearly 30 % belong to I and II classes of danger. It should be noted that information coming from regions about the amount of obsolete pesticides changes constantly. The reason for this is that many places have no owner and there are different sources of data. Obsolete pesticides are stored in 4752 warehouses that are a subject to continuous supervision.

 

Inventory has been done on oblast levels by the Commissions under Oblast Administrations. Traditionally these Commissions were chaired by Deputy Heads of Oblast Administrations and included specialists from Departments of Agriculture, Ecology and Emergency Situations, representatives of police and local (district or village) authorities. From the UA country report “Legal and Technical assessment of the management of obsolete pesticides Ukraine” in 2006 the amount of substances that shall be handled as POPs stockpiles in Ukraine are even higher than those identified in the NIP, amounting to 31,689.2 tons. As a matter of fact the national inventories of POPs pesticides that are the basis for the NIP were developed in accordance with National Guidelines, but neither PSMS nor any other International system was used. Moreover some small amounts of obsolete pesticides found in private yards may have not been accounted for in the NIP inventories. Illegal imports of POPs pesticides and used containers are also not included in the inventory.

 

Since 2007 Ukraine has started a program to export obsolete pesticides to EU for incineration. The program was developed based on the National Implementation Plan for Ukraine for Stockholm Convention on POPs and strictly in accordance with the regulations of the Basel Convention on Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Waste. The first exports were done by the private Zaporozhye-located company “Dynamyka”, followed by state-owned “National Center for Hazardous Waste Management” (NCHWM), and then, after its liquidation – by the subsidiaries of the Israeli company “S.I. Group (Consort)” Ltd.

 

In 2007-2010, export operations were funded from the State budget, in 2011-2012 – both from the State and oblasts budgets. Relevant funds are allocated both in the State and oblasts budgets. The program aimed at collecting, processing, transporting and destroying obsolete pesticides and containers in 22 regions of Ukraine by end of 2011: Crimea, Vinnitsa, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Zhytomyr, Zakarpattia, Zaporizhia, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kyiv, Kirovohrad (now – Kropivnitskiy), Luhansk, Lviv, Nikolayev, Odessa, Poltava, Rivne, Sumy, Kharkiv, Kherson, Khmelnytsky, Cherkasy and Chernihiv regions. The remaining regions would be cleared from obsolete pesticides by 2012. However, analysis of the situation on the treatment of obsolete and banned pesticides and toxic chemicals in the regions as of January 2013 showed that according to official data Ukraine still possessed more than 11 thousand tons of obsolete pesticides, located at more than 1200 warehouses and areas, whose condition was mostly very poor. Other data refers to an amount of 7500 tons. Also, during the repackaging of obsolete pesticides in the period 2009-2012, an additional 6 thousand tons of obsolete pesticides were identified. The conclusion of independent experts and the results of practical work on the repackaging of obsolete pesticides has shown that the actual number of obsolete pesticides in Ukraine is at least twice as much as data that was provided by the official statistics, and their number cannot be less than 40 thousand tons. Evaluation of the amount of obsolete and banned pesticides and toxic chemicals in the regions as of January 2014, carried out according to the Environmental Passport of Ukrainian regions, showed that, according to official figures, only in 8 regions (Volyn, Zakarpattia, Dnipropetrovsk, Ivano-Frankivsk, Kirovograd, Lviv, Kharkiv, Chernivtsi) there are no obsolete pesticides. In 4 regions the amount of obsolete pesticides exceeds 500 tones: Vinnytsia - 2778.60 tones Kherson - 1921.80 tones, Sumy - 563.09 tones, Odessa - 554.26 tones. All these inconsistencies in the national POPs inventories will have to be further investigated in the new project. The guidance recommended by the BRS Secretariat and the Country guidelines developed by the FAO will be fully used.

 

The project will also take into account the outputs of the regional EU-FAO GCP 040 project aimed improving pesticide management in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The project was implemented from 2013 to 2016 and a number of documents were developed evaluating both existing and newly generated waste, including obsolete and counterfeit pesticides that may contain POPs.

 

PCBs

 

Analysis of PCB data obtained from Ukrainian enterprises proves that the largest amounts of PCBs are used and/or located at the most power consuming enterprises of metallurgic and engineering sectors.

 

Regarding various types of PCB-containing equipment the «hot spots» are:

a) transformers - Donetsk oblast (25%); Dniepropetrovsk oblast (11%); Kyiv oblast (11%);

b) capacitors - Zaporizhzhya oblast (18%); the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (12%); Dniepropetrovsk oblast (7%);

c) PCB containing liquids - Donetsk oblast (27%); Dniepropetrovsk oblast (26%); Kyiv oblast (14%).

 

As of today, the inventory revealed a total of 1,002 transformers of 27 different models, and 102.032 capacitors of 157 different models as well as 250,048 kg of synthetic liquids of 8 various types. Each transformer weighs between 490 kg and 12,000 kg while the total weight of liquid dielectric in each one varies from 160 kg to 4,160 kg. The total weight of all transformers is 5,746,540 kg, of which PCB makes up 2,051,160 kg. The total amount of PCB contained in the equipment and stored at Ukrainian enterprises, as estimated by the preliminary inventory, makes up about 4,240 tons. It should be noted that experts’ estimated the real amounts to be 1.5-3 times larger. These estimates are based on comparison of industrial and economic performance of Ukraine and the Russian Federation as well as data on PCBs and PCB-containing equipment in Russia showing about 10,000 transformers and 500,000 capacitors located there. Total amount of PCBs in Russia amounts up to 35,000 kg.

 

Therefore, the total amounts of PCBs and PCB-containing equipment currently available in Ukraine may be estimated as follows: transformers: 1,500-3,000 items; PCBs in transformers: 3,000-6,000 tons; weight of transformers: 8,300-16,600 tons; capacitors: 150,000-200,000 items; PCBs in capacitors: 2,850-3,800 tons; weight of capacitors: 9,000-12,000 tons; PCBs stockpiled: 400-600 tons; total amount of PCBs: 6,220-10,540 tons.

 

Analysis of available published data and similar research projects carried out by Russian and Belorussian teams helped to estimate PCBs leakage from operating equipment, which makes up 0.3 kg/ton for transformers and 2 kg/ton for capacitors. Estimation of PCBs releases from electric equipment has been performed on the outcome data of the UNEP/ Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine project on PCBs inventory. Estimated total PCBs leakage made up 4,148.25 kg in 2002. However the whole PCBs leakage cannot evaporate. An assumption based on the research findings is that PCBs leakage make up 0.06 kg/ton for transformers and 0.8 kg/ton for capacitors.

 

There is no information about the amount of PCBs that could have been managed or exported from Ukraine. The national PCB inventories will also be revised in the new project.

 

Dioxins and furans

 

Inventory of POPs releases sources from unintentional production for the period of 2002-2004 has been carried out in Ukraine to evaluate gross releases. The evaluation was undertaken based on the recommendations of the EMEP/ Corinair Guide for estimation of releases and their forecast by sources mentioned in the Guide. Guide for inventory of dioxins and furans leakage was proposed by UNEP. Determination of the amounts of POPs releases is rather costly and is accompanied by a number of obstacles in Ukraine, that’s why the inventory was based on the statistical data received from the SSCU. The following types of releases sources have been considered: incineration of domestic wastes, ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, electricity and heat power production, cement, brick, glass, and lime manufacturing, transport, forest fires, cellulose and paper manufacturing etc. Total annual amounts of PCDDs/PCDFs releases in Ukraine were estimated as 2,516.5 g of TEQ in 1990 and 1,451.4 g of TEQ in 2002, of which ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, electricity and heat power production make up 95%.

 

The national PCDD and PCDF inventories will also be revised using the January 2013 version of the UNEP Toolkit for Identification and Quantification of Releases of Dioxins, Furans and Other Unintentional POPs under article 5 of the Stockholm Convention.

 

 

New POPs (COP4, COP5 and COP6)

 

There is no baseline information about POPs added in COP 4, COP 5 and COP 6 in Ukraine. Inventories of these new chemicals will be fully developed in the NIP update project.

 

 


Expedited Enabling Activity(EA)

National


Europe


Ukraine


GEF Trust Fund

Stage Grant to UNEP Grant to other IA Co-Financing UNEP Fee Other IA Fee


No





External



Executing Agency Category

Partner Category
International NGO

Name Category Period

Low Risk

The future NIP implementation will lead to the reduction of risks to the population, especially to the most vulnerable ones. For example, in agricultural communities in developing countries men may be at higher exposure to chemicals pesticides during application, while women and children may be more likely to be indirectly exposed during planting and harvesting. In some developing countries Dieldrin and Hexachlorobenzene (solvent in pesticide) are still used in agriculture . In 2010, the International Labour Organization (ILO) estimated that approximately 70% of all children labourers from 5 to 17 years old work in agriculture. The FAO statistics from 2010 indicate that approximately 43% of all women in the work market work in agriculture. There is also an established link between poverty and the increased risk of exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals. Exposure of poor people to toxic chemicals is often strongly correlated to geography, where low income populations typically reside in places considered undesirable, such as areas in the proximity to a factory, landfills, site incinerators and/or hazardous waste dumps (UNDP, 2011).



Not Applicable

0





Fiscal Year Project activities and objectives met

Under the former Soviet Union, from the late fifties to the 1990s, DDT was among the pesticides most widely used in agriculture and medicine in all oblasts of Ukraine. Ukraine was also the manufacturer and exporter of DDT to the former soviet republics in Central Asia and abroad. The production stopped in Ukraine in 1986. DDT application in medicine was prohibited in 1989 by the Order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR.

 

 

On 5 August 1997 "the list of pesticides prohibited for use in agriculture, which cannot be registered or re-registered in Ukraine" was approved. The list includes Aldrin, HCH (mixed isomers), Lindane, HCB, Heptachlor and its mixtures with Three-dimensional model of the Thiram molecule and HCB, DDT and agents based on it, DDD, DDE, Dieldrin, Endrin, Toxaphene, Chlordane. The list has to be updated to include some of the new POPs pesticides listed in the Convention ever since. The prohibition to use these pesticides has led to the accumulation of residues in warehouses on the territory of Ukraine. At this time they are in the warehouses of varying degrees of destruction and their identification is difficult. They are poured randomly in a heap, over time they begin to react. The effects of such chemical reactions are generally difficult to predict. Sometimes self-ignition happens. Toxic substances poison the air, soil and water, and the indiscriminate dumping of pesticides is a ticking time bomb. According to the results of the first inventory, conducted by the local organs of the Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2005-2006, the volume of wastes was approximately 21,38 thousand tones. From this amount of wastes, nearly 30 % belong to I and II classes of danger. It should be noted that information coming from regions about the amount of obsolete pesticides changes constantly. The reason for this is that many places have no owner and there are different sources of data. Obsolete pesticides are stored in 4752 warehouses that are a subject to continuous supervision.


$ 0.00

Project Objective: Review and update the National Implementation Plan (NIP) in order to comply with article 7 under the Stockholm Convention

Project Component

Project Outputs

(in $)

GEF Project

Financing

Confirmed Co financing[1]

1.     Support to share information and evaluate NIPs worldwide

1.1      Capacity building and technical assistance provided to countries to develop NIPs while building sustainable foundations for their future implementation;

 

1.2      Knowledge management services provided.

17,500

0

2.    NIP updating, endorsement and submission to the Stockholm Convention Secretariat

2.1    Technical guidance and support provided to strengthen the national coordination mechanism for NIP updating and future implementation;

 

2.2    Comprehensive information on the current POPs management institutions and regulatory framework, POPs life cycle in the country and their impacts to human health and the environment compiled and made publicly available;

 

2.3    Draft updated NIP developed based on identified national priorities;

 

2.4    Technical support provided to facilitate the NIP endorsement and submission to the Stockholm Convention Secretariat.

298,400

0

3.    Monitoring and Evaluation

3.1    Status of project implementation and probity of use of funds accessed on a regular basis and communicated to the GEF.

 

3.2    Independent terminal evaluation developed and made publicly available.

15,000

 

Subtotal

331,000

0

Project Management Cost[2]

19,100

0

Total Project Cost

350,000

0

 



[1]                      Co-financing for enabling activity is encouraged but not required.

[2]                      This is the cost associated with the unit executing the project on the ground and could be financed out of trust fund or co-financing sources. For EAs within the ceiling, PMC could be up to 10% of the Subtotal GEF Project Financing.


No